Filipino residents worked to rebuild homes leveled by Rammasun in the city of Muntinlupa, which is south of Manila. European Pressphoto Agency

MANILA—The death toll in the Philippines from Typhoon Rammasun rose to 38 people Thursday as authorities worked to clear roads and restore power to the capital and several provinces.

More than 500,000 people are in evacuation centers in the capital and other affected areas after they fled ahead of the typhoon's touchdown on Tuesday night in Albay province, which is about 460 kilometers (286 miles) southeast of Manila. Ten people were reported injured and eight are missing in Manila and the affected areas, according to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council.

Francis R. Malasig/European Pressphoto Agency

Energy Secretary Jericho Petilla said electricity should be fully restored in metropolitan Manila by late Friday and to other areas by Tuesday.

Rammasun is the strongest typhoon to make landfall since Haiyan devastated the central Philippines in November and claimed more than 6,000 lives. Rammasun left the Philippines Wednesday night and is headed for southern China.

The Philippines is visited by about 20 large storms every year. The weather bureau is watching another typhoon develop in the Pacific Ocean east of central Philippines—a region battered by Haiyan that is still struggling to recover.

Agriculture Secretary Proceso Alcala said the initial estimate of damage to farmers in 15 provinces is $53 million.

Rammasun's winds gusted up to 185 kilometers per hour, uprooting trees, toppling electric poles and ripping off roofs. In addition, 15 roads and four bridges in southern Luzon and central Philippine provinces were rendered impassable.

Damage to power lines have isolated major power plants in provinces south of Manila, which account for 55% of the power capacity for Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines. It may take weeks to repair all the major power lines.

Write to Cris Larano at cris.larano@wsj.com and Josephine Cuneta at josephine.cuneta@wsj.com