TEL AVIV—Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu denounced as a “diktat” on Monday a Palestinian move at the United Nations to set a deadline for an Israeli military withdrawal from the West Bank.

Palestinian leaders, in the absence of any ongoing direct talks with the Israelis, say they plan to submit a draft resolution to the U.N. Security Council setting forth such a move, perhaps as early as Wednesday.

As he boarded a plane bound for Rome and a meeting with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, Mr. Netanyahu excoriated the Palestinian initiative at the U.N.

‘’In recent years we have rebuffed recurrent attempts to dictate conditions to us that would have harmed Israel’s security and which are incompatible with genuine peace,” the Israeli leader said. “This time as we will we will not accept attempts to dictate to us unilateral moves on a limited timetable.”

He declared: “I will make this unequivocally clear: We will stand firm in the face of any diktat.”

The U.S. traditionally has vetoed Security Council resolutions that bypass direct talks between Israel and the Palestinians, which its sees as the only avenue to achieve a Palestinian state.

That longtime position, however, is likely to be put under strain if the Palestinians go forward this week at the U.N.

Relations between Mr. Netanyahu and the White House have frayed, as Israel continues to defy U.S. calls to stop Jewish settlement expansion in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.

Senior Israeli officials have openly mocked Mr. Kerry, who for months labored unsuccessfully for a resumption of talks. Earlier this year, the Israeli media quoted Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon as calling the secretary of state “obsessive and messianic.”

Last week, Mr. Ya’alon told a West Bank audience the Obama administration was blocking Israel from building more settlements but assured it the current U.S. government “won’t last forever,” according to Israel Army Radio.

With the peace process stalled, many European parliaments have recognized Palestinian statehood—declarations that put the U.S. at odds with allies should it again use its veto.

After meeting Mr. Netanyahu in Rome, Mr. Kerry is scheduled to meet Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas Tuesday in London.

After meetings with Mr. Abbas late Sunday, top Palestinian leaders said the draft resolution they planned to introduce Wednesday at the Security Council would demand a withdrawal of Israeli troops within two years and recognize a Palestinian state.

Israel, which stations troops on land claimed by Palestinians for a future state, has occupied the West Bank for 47 years. It annexed the territory, as well as East Jerusalem, following its victory in the 1967 Arab-Israeli war.